obesity health risks, what is obesity, and what are the most dangerous health problems for it

obesity health risks

obesity health risks

Obesity is a complex health problems that results from a combination of causes and individual factors such as behavior and genetics. Behaviors can include physical activity, lack of activity, dietary patterns, drug use, and other types of exposures. Additional contributing factors include the nutritional environment, physical activity, education and skills, and food marketing and promotion.

Obesity is dangerous because it is linked to worse mental health outcomes and reduced quality of life. Obesity is also linked to the leading causes of death in the United States and around the world, including diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and some types of cancer.


Healthy behaviors include regular physical activity and healthy eating. Balancing the number of calories consumed from foods and drinks with the number of calories the body uses for activity plays a role in preventing extra weight gain. 1,2 and Guidelines for Physical Activity for Americans, an external symbol, adults recommend at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity activity or 75 minutes of vigorous activity, or a combination of both, plus two days of strength training per week.

A healthy diet pattern follows the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, an external code that focuses on eating whole grains, fruits and vegetables, lean protein, low-fat and fat-free dairy, and drinking water.

A healthy eating pattern and regular physical activity are also important for long-term public health benefits and the prevention of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

Community environment

People and families may make decisions based on their environment or society. For example, a person may not walk or bike to the store or work due to the lack of sidewalks or safe bike paths. Community, home, childcare, school, healthcare, and workplace settings can affect everyday behaviors. Therefore, it is important to create environments that facilitate physical activity and healthy eating.

Watch the obesity epidemic as an external symbol to identify the many societal environmental factors that contributed to the spread of the obesity epidemic, in addition to the many community initiatives taken to prevent and reduce obesity..


Do genes have a role in obesity?

In humans, genetic changes are occurring so slowly that they cannot be responsible for the obesity epidemic. However, how people respond to an environment that promotes physical inactivity and eating high-calorie foods suggests that genetics play a role in the development of obesity.

How can genes affect obesity?

Genes instruct the body to respond to changes in its environment. Variables in several genes may contribute to obesity by increasing hunger and food intake.

Rarely, a clear pattern of inherited obesity within a family is caused by a specific type of one gene (monogenous obesity). However, most obesity is probably caused by complex interactions between multiple genes and environmental factors that are still poorly understood (multifactorial obesity).

What about family history?

Health care practitioners routinely collect family health histories to help identify people at risk of developing obesity-related diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer. Family health history reflects the effects of shared genes and environment among close relatives. Families cannot change their genes, but they can encourage healthy eating habits and physical activity. These changes can improve the health of family members - and improve the health history of the next generation.

Other factors: diseases and medications

Some diseases may lead to obesity or weight gain. These may include Cushing's disease and PCOS. Medicines such as steroids and some antidepressants may also lead to weight gain. Research continues on the role of other factors in energy balance and weight gain such as chemical exposure and the role of the microbiome.

A health care provider can help you learn more about your health habits and history to determine if behaviors, illnesses, medications, and/or psychological factors contribute to weight gain or make weight loss difficult.

The consequences of obesity

Health consequences

People who have obesity, compared to those who have a healthy weight, are at an increased risk of many serious diseases and health conditions, including the following: 5,6,7

  • All causes of death (deaths)
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • High low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, or high levels of triglycerides (dyslipidemia)
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Apoplexy
  • Gallbladder diseases
  • Osteoporosis (breakdown of cartilage and bone within a joint)
  • Sleep apnea and breathing problems
  • Many types of cancer are an external symbol
  • Poor quality of life
  • Mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety, and other mental disorders 8,9
  • Body pain and difficulty with physical performance 10

Economic and societal consequences

Obesity and its associated health problems have a significant economic impact on the US healthcare system, 11 including direct and indirect costs. 12,13 Direct medical costs may include prevention, diagnosis, and treatment services. Indirect costs are associated with illness and death Includes lost productivity. Productivity measures include absenteeism from work for health-related reasons related to obesity, low productivity on the job, and premature death and disability. 14

Estimated national costs of obesity

The costs of obesity-related medical care in the United States, in 2008, were estimated in dollars, 147 billion dollars. 15 The nationwide annual productivity costs for obesity-related absenteeism range from $ 3.38 billion ($ 79 per obese individual) to $ 6.38 billion ($ 132 per obese individual). 16

Additionally, obesity has implications for recruitment into the armed forces. In 2007-08, 5.7 million men and 16.5 million women eligible for military service surpassed the Army conscription standards for weight and body fat. 17 An assessment of the proportion of the population of military age for the United States that exceeds current US Army enlistment standards for weight-for-height and body fat percentage was performed, using data from the National Health Surveys and Nutrition Examination.


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